draft-ietf-idr-as4bytes-12.txt   draft-ietf-idr-as4bytes-13.txt 
Network Working Group Quaizar Vohra Network Working Group Quaizar Vohra
Internet Draft Juniper Networks Internet Draft Nuova Systems
Expiration Date: May 2006 Enke Chen Expiration Date: July 2007 Enke Chen
Cisco Systems Cisco Systems
BGP Support for Four-octet AS Number Space BGP Support for Four-octet AS Number Space
draft-ietf-idr-as4bytes-12.txt draft-ietf-idr-as4bytes-13.txt
Status of this Memo Status of this Memo
By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any By submitting this Internet-Draft, each author represents that any
applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware applicable patent or other IPR claims of which he or she is aware
have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes have been or will be disclosed, and any of which he or she becomes
aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79. aware will be disclosed, in accordance with Section 6 of BCP 79.
Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering Internet-Drafts are working documents of the Internet Engineering
Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that Task Force (IETF), its areas, and its working groups. Note that
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1. Introduction 1. Introduction
Currently the Autonomous System number is encoded as a two-octet Currently the Autonomous System number is encoded as a two-octet
entity in BGP [BGP]. To prepare for the anticipated exhaustion of entity in BGP [BGP]. To prepare for the anticipated exhaustion of
the two-octet AS numbers, this document describes extensions to BGP the two-octet AS numbers, this document describes extensions to BGP
to carry the Autonomous System number as a four-octet entity. to carry the Autonomous System number as a four-octet entity.
More specifically, this document defines a new BGP capability, Four- More specifically, this document defines a new BGP capability, Four-
octet AS Number Capability, that can be used by a BGP speaker to octet AS Number Capability, that can be used by a BGP speaker to
indicate its support for the four-octet AS numbers. Two new indicate its support for the four-octet AS numbers. Two new
attributes, NEW_AS_PATH and NEW_AGGREGATOR, are introduced that can attributes, AS4_PATH and AS4_AGGREGATOR, are introduced that can be
be used to propagate four-octet based AS path information across BGP used to propagate four-octet based AS path information across BGP
speakers that do not support the four-octet AS numbers. This document speakers that do not support the four-octet AS numbers. This document
also specifies mechanisms for constructing the AS path information also specifies mechanisms for constructing the AS path information
from the AS_PATH attribute and the NEW_AS_PATH attribute. from the AS_PATH attribute and the AS4_PATH attribute.
The extensions proposed in this document allow a gradual transition The extensions proposed in this document allow a gradual transition
from 2-octet AS numbers to 4-octet AS numbers. from 2-octet AS numbers to 4-octet AS numbers.
2. Specification of Requirements 2. Specification of Requirements
The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT", The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
"SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119]. document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].
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NEW BGP speakers carry AS path information expressed in terms of NEW BGP speakers carry AS path information expressed in terms of
4-octet Autonomous Systems numbers by using the existing AS_PATH 4-octet Autonomous Systems numbers by using the existing AS_PATH
attribute, except that each AS number in this attribute is encoded attribute, except that each AS number in this attribute is encoded
not as a 2-octet, but as a 4-octet entity. The same applies to the not as a 2-octet, but as a 4-octet entity. The same applies to the
AGGREGATOR attribute - NEW BGP speakers use the same attribute, AGGREGATOR attribute - NEW BGP speakers use the same attribute,
except that the AS carried in this attribute is encoded as a 4-octet except that the AS carried in this attribute is encoded as a 4-octet
entity. entity.
To preserve AS path information with 4-octet AS numbers across OLD To preserve AS path information with 4-octet AS numbers across OLD
BGP speakers, this document defines a new AS path attribute, called BGP speakers, this document defines a new AS path attribute, called
NEW_AS_PATH. This is an optional transitive attribute that contains AS4_PATH. This is an optional transitive attribute that contains the
the AS path encoded with 4-octet AS numbers. The NEW_AS_PATH AS path encoded with 4-octet AS numbers. The AS4_PATH attribute has
attribute has the same semantics as the AS_PATH attribute, except the same semantics as the AS_PATH attribute, except that it is
that it is optional transitive, and it carries 4-octet AS numbers. optional transitive, and it carries 4-octet AS numbers.
To prevent the possible propagation of confederation path segments To prevent the possible propagation of confederation path segments
outside of a confederation, the path segment types AS_CONFED_SEQUENCE outside of a confederation, the path segment types AS_CONFED_SEQUENCE
and AS_CONFED_SET [RFC3065] are declared invalid for the NEW_AS_PATH and AS_CONFED_SET [RFC3065] are declared invalid for the AS4_PATH
attribute. attribute.
Similarly, this document defines a new aggregator attribute called Similarly, this document defines a new aggregator attribute called
NEW_AGGREGATOR, which is optional transitive. The NEW_AGGREGATOR AS4_AGGREGATOR, which is optional transitive. The AS4_AGGREGATOR
attribute has the same semantics as the AGGREGATOR attribute, except attribute has the same semantics as the AGGREGATOR attribute, except
that it carries 4-octet AS numbers. that it carries a 4-octet AS number.
Currently assigned 2-octet Autonomous System numbers are converted Currently assigned 2-octet Autonomous System numbers are converted
into 4-octet Autonomous System numbers by setting the high-order 2 into 4-octet Autonomous System numbers by setting the two high-order
octets of the 4-octet field to zero. Such a 4-octet AS number is said octets of the 4-octet field to zero. Such a 4-octet AS number is said
to be mappable to a 2-octet AS number. to be mappable to a 2-octet AS number.
To represent 4-octet AS numbers (which are not mapped from 2-octets) To represent 4-octet AS numbers (which are not mapped from 2-octets)
as 2-octet AS numbers in the AS path information encoded with 2-octet as 2-octet AS numbers in the AS path information encoded with 2-octet
AS numbers, this document reserves a 2-octet AS number. We denote AS numbers, this document reserves a 2-octet AS number. We denote
this special AS number as AS_TRANS for ease of description in the this special AS number as AS_TRANS for ease of description in the
rest of this specification. This AS number is also placed in the "My rest of this specification. This AS number is also placed in the "My
Autonomous System" field of the OPEN message originated by a NEW BGP Autonomous System" field of the OPEN message originated by a NEW BGP
speaker if the speaker does not have a (globally unique) 2-octet AS speaker if the speaker does not have a (globally unique) 2-octet AS
number. number.
4. Operations 4. Operations
4.1. Interaction Between NEW BGP Speakers 4.1. Interaction Between NEW BGP Speakers
A BGP speaker that supports 4-octet Autonomous System numbers MAY A BGP speaker that supports 4-octet Autonomous System numbers SHOULD
advertise this to its peers using the BGP Capability Advertisements. advertise this to its peers using the BGP Capability Advertisements.
A BGP speaker that advertises such capability to a particular peer, A BGP speaker that advertises such capability to a particular peer,
and receives from that peer the advertisement of such capability MUST and receives from that peer the advertisement of such capability MUST
encode Autonomous System numbers as 4-octet entities in both the encode Autonomous System numbers as 4-octet entities in both the
AS_PATH and the AGGREGATOR attributes in the updates it sends to the AS_PATH and the AGGREGATOR attributes in the updates it sends to the
peer, and MUST assume that these attributes in the updates received peer, and MUST assume that these attributes in the updates received
from the peer encode Autonomous System numbers as 4-octet entities. from the peer encode Autonomous System numbers as 4-octet entities.
The new attributes, NEW_AS_PATH and NEW_AGGREGATOR SHOULD NOT be The new attributes, AS4_PATH and AS4_AGGREGATOR SHOULD NOT be carried
carried in the UPDATE messages between NEW BGP peers. A NEW BGP in the UPDATE messages between NEW BGP peers. A NEW BGP speaker that
speaker that receives the NEW_AS_PATH and NEW_AGGREGATOR path receives the AS4_PATH and AS4_AGGREGATOR path attributes in an UPDATE
attributes in an UPDATE message from a NEW BGP speaker SHOULD discard message from a NEW BGP speaker SHOULD discard these path attributes
these path attributes and continue processing the UPDATE message. and continue processing the UPDATE message.
4.2. Interaction Between NEW and OLD BGP Speakers 4.2. Interaction Between NEW and OLD BGP Speakers
4.2.1. BGP Peering 4.2.1. BGP Peering
Note that peering between a NEW BGP speaker and an OLD one is Note that peering between a NEW BGP speaker and an OLD one is
possible only if the NEW BGP speaker has a 2-octet AS number. possible only if the NEW BGP speaker has a 2-octet AS number.
However, this document does not assume that an Autonomous System with However, this document does not assume that an Autonomous System with
NEW speakers has to have a globally unique 2-octet AS number - NEW speakers has to have a globally unique 2-octet AS number -
AS_TRANS could be used instead (even if multiple Autonomous System AS_TRANS could be used instead (even if multiple Autonomous System
would use it). would use it).
4.2.2. Generating Updates 4.2.2. Generating Updates
When communicating with an OLD BGP speaker, a NEW speaker MUST send When communicating with an OLD BGP speaker, a NEW speaker MUST send
the AS path information in the AS_PATH attribute encoded with 2-octet the AS path information in the AS_PATH attribute encoded with 2-octet
AS numbers. The NEW speaker also MUST send the AS path information in AS numbers. The NEW speaker also MUST send the AS path information in
the NEW_AS_PATH attribute (encoded with 4-octet AS numbers), except the AS4_PATH attribute (encoded with 4-octet AS numbers), except for
for the case where the entire AS path information is composed of the case where the entire AS path information is composed of 2-octet
2-octet AS numbers only. In this case the NEW speaker SHOULD NOT send AS numbers only. In this case the NEW speaker SHOULD NOT send the
the NEW_AS_PATH attribute. AS4_PATH attribute.
In the AS_PATH attribute encoded with 2-octet AS numbers, non- In the AS_PATH attribute encoded with 2-octet AS numbers, non-
mappable 4-octet AS numbers are represented by the well known 2-octet mappable 4-octet AS numbers are represented by the well known 2-octet
AS number, AS_TRANS. This will preserve the path length property of AS number, AS_TRANS. This will preserve the path length property of
the AS path information; and will also help in updating the AS path the AS path information; and will also help in updating the AS path
information received on a NEW BGP speaker from an OLD speaker, as information received on a NEW BGP speaker from an OLD speaker, as
explained in the next section. explained in the next section.
The NEW speaker constructs the NEW_AS_PATH attribute from the The NEW speaker constructs the AS4_PATH attribute from the
information carried in the AS_PATH attribute. In the case where the information carried in the AS_PATH attribute. In the case where the
AS_PATH attribute contains either AS_CONFED_SEQUENCE or AS_CONFED_SET AS_PATH attribute contains either AS_CONFED_SEQUENCE or AS_CONFED_SET
path segments, the NEW speaker, when constructing the NEW_AS_PATH path segments, the NEW speaker, when constructing the AS4_PATH
attribute from the AS_PATH attribute, MUST exclude such path attribute from the AS_PATH attribute, MUST exclude such path
segments. The NEW_AS_PATH attribute will be carried across a series segments. The AS4_PATH attribute will be carried across a series of
of OLD BGP speakers without modification and will help preserve the OLD BGP speakers without modification and will help preserve the
truly 4-octet AS numbers in the AS path information. truly 4-octet AS numbers in the AS path information.
Similarly, if the NEW speaker has to send the AGGREGATOR attribute, Similarly, if the NEW speaker has to send the AGGREGATOR attribute,
and if the aggregating Autonomous System's AS number is truly and if the aggregating Autonomous System's AS number is truly
4-octets, the speaker constructs the NEW_AGGREGATOR attributes by 4-octets, the speaker constructs the AS4_AGGREGATOR attributes by
taking the attribute length and attribute value from the AGGREGATOR taking the attribute length and attribute value from the AGGREGATOR
attribute and placing them into the attribute length and attribute attribute and placing them into the attribute length and attribute
value of the NEW_AGGREGATOR attribute, and sets the AS number field value of the AS4_AGGREGATOR attribute, and sets the AS number field
in the existing AGGREGATOR attribute to the reserved AS number, in the existing AGGREGATOR attribute to the reserved AS number,
AS_TRANS. Note that if the AS number is 2-octets only, then the AS_TRANS. Note that if the AS number is 2-octets only, then the
NEW_AGGREGATE attribute SHOULD NOT be sent. AS4_AGGREGATOR attribute SHOULD NOT be sent.
4.2.3. Processing Received Updates 4.2.3. Processing Received Updates
When a NEW BGP speaker receives an update from an OLD one, it should When a NEW BGP speaker receives an update from an OLD one, it should
be prepared to receive the NEW_AS_PATH attribute along with the be prepared to receive the AS4_PATH attribute along with the existing
existing AS_PATH attribute. If the NEW_AS_PATH attribute is also AS_PATH attribute. If the AS4_PATH attribute is also received, both
received, both the attributes will be used to construct the exact AS the attributes will be used to construct the exact AS path
path information, and therefore the information carried by both the information, and therefore the information carried by both the
attributes will be considered for AS path loop detection. attributes will be considered for AS path loop detection.
Note that a route may have traversed a series of autonomous systems Note that a route may have traversed a series of autonomous systems
with 2-octet AS numbers and OLD BGP speakers only. In that case, if with 2-octet AS numbers and OLD BGP speakers only. In that case, if
the route carries the NEW_AS_PATH attribute, this attribute must have the route carries the AS4_PATH attribute, this attribute must have
remained unmodified since the route left the last NEW BGP speaker. remained unmodified since the route left the last NEW BGP speaker.
The trailing AS path information (representing autonomous systems The trailing AS path information (representing autonomous systems
with 2-octet AS numbers and OLD BGP speakers only) is contained only with 2-octet AS numbers and OLD BGP speakers only) is contained only
in the current AS_PATH attribute (encoded in the leading part of the in the current AS_PATH attribute (encoded in the leading part of the
AS_PATH attribute). AS_PATH attribute).
Under certain conditions it may not be possible to reconstruct the Under certain conditions it may not be possible to reconstruct the
entire AS path information from the AS_PATH and the NEW_AS_PATH entire AS path information from the AS_PATH and the AS4_PATH
attributes of a route. This occurs when two or more routes that carry attributes of a route. This occurs when two or more routes that carry
the NEW_AS_PATH attribute are aggregated by an OLD BGP speaker, and the AS4_PATH attribute are aggregated by an OLD BGP speaker, and the
the NEW_AS_PATH attribute of at least one of these routes carries at AS4_PATH attribute of at least one of these routes carries at least
least one 4-octet AS number (as oppose to a 2-octet AS number that is one 4-octet AS number (as oppose to a 2-octet AS number that is
encoded in 4 octets). Depending on the implementation, either the encoded in 4 octets). Depending on the implementation, either the
NEW_AS_PATH attribute would be lost during route aggregation, or both AS4_PATH attribute would be lost during route aggregation, or both
the AS_PATH attribute and the NEW_AS_PATH attribute would contain the AS_PATH attribute and the AS4_PATH attribute would contain valid,
valid, partial information that can not be combined seamlessly, partial information that can not be combined seamlessly, resulting in
resulting in incomplete AS path information in these cases. incomplete AS path information in these cases.
A NEW BGP speaker should also be prepared to receive the A NEW BGP speaker should also be prepared to receive the
NEW_AGGREGATOR attribute along with the AGGREGATOR attribute from an AS4_AGGREGATOR attribute along with the AGGREGATOR attribute from an
OLD BGP speaker. When both the attributes are received, if the AS OLD BGP speaker. When both the attributes are received, if the AS
number in the AGGREGATOR attribute is not AS_TRAN, then the number in the AGGREGATOR attribute is not AS_TRANS, then the
NEW_AGGREGATOR attribute and the NEW_AS_PATH attribute SHALL be AS4_AGGREGATOR attribute and the AS4_PATH attribute SHALL be ignored,
ignored, and the AGGREGATOR attribute SHALL be taken as the and the AGGREGATOR attribute SHALL be taken as the information about
information about the aggregating node, and the AS_PATH attribute the aggregating node, and the AS_PATH attribute SHALL be taken as the
SHALL be taken as the AS path information; otherwise the AGGREGATOR AS path information; otherwise the AGGREGATOR attribute SHALL be
attribute SHALL be ignored, and the NEW_AGGREGATOR attribute SHALL be ignored, and the AS4_AGGREGATOR attribute SHALL be taken as the
taken as the information about the aggregating node, and the AS path information about the aggregating node, and the AS path information
information would need to be constructed, as in all other cases. would need to be constructed, as in all other cases.
In order to construct the AS path information, it would be necessary In order to construct the AS path information, it would be necessary
to first calculate the number of AS numbers in the AS_PATH attribute to first calculate the number of AS numbers in the AS_PATH attribute
and in the NEW_AS_PATH attribute using the method specified in Sect. and in the AS4_PATH attribute using the method specified in Sect.
9.1.2.2 [BGP] and [RFC3065] for route selection. 9.1.2.2 [BGP] and [RFC3065] for route selection.
If the number of AS numbers in the AS_PATH attribute is less than the If the number of AS numbers in the AS_PATH attribute is less than the
number of AS numbers in the NEW_AS_PATH attribute, then the number of AS numbers in the AS4_PATH attribute, then the AS4_PATH
NEW_AS_PATH attribute SHALL be ignored, and the AS_PATH attribute attribute SHALL be ignored, and the AS_PATH attribute SHALL be taken
SHALL be taken as the AS path information. as the AS path information.
If the number of AS numbers in the AS_PATH attribute is larger than If the number of AS numbers in the AS_PATH attribute is larger than
or equal to the number of AS numbers in the NEW_AS_PATH attribute, or equal to the number of AS numbers in the AS4_PATH attribute, then
then the AS path information SHALL be constructed by taking as many the AS path information SHALL be constructed by taking as many AS
AS numbers and path segments as necessary from the leading part of numbers and path segments as necessary from the leading part of the
the AS_PATH attribute, and then prepending them to the NEW_AS_PATH AS_PATH attribute, and then prepending them to the AS4_PATH attribute
attribute so that the AS path information has an identical number of so that the AS path information has an identical number of AS numbers
AS numbers as the AS_PATH attribute. Note that a valid as the AS_PATH attribute. Note that a valid AS_CONFED_SEQUENCE or
AS_CONFED_SEQUENCE or AS_CONFED_SET path segment SHALL be prepended AS_CONFED_SET path segment SHALL be prepended if it is either the
if it is either the leading path segment or adjacent to a path leading path segment or adjacent to a path segment that is prepended.
segment that is prepended.
5. Handling BGP Communities 5. Handling BGP Communities
As specified in [RFC1997], when the high-order two-octets of the As specified in [RFC1997], when the high-order two-octets of the
community attribute is neither 0x0000 nor 0xffff, these two octets community attribute is neither 0x0000 nor 0xffff, these two octets
encode the Autonomous System number. Quite clearly this would not encode the Autonomous System number. Quite clearly this would not
work for BGP speakers that use 4-octets Autonomous System numbers. work for BGP speakers that use 4-octets Autonomous System numbers.
Such BGP speakers should use the Four-octet AS Specific Extended Such BGP speakers should use the Four-octet AS Specific Extended
Communities [AS-EXT-COMM] instead. Communities [AS-EXT-COMM] instead.
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The scheme described in this document allows a gradual transition The scheme described in this document allows a gradual transition
from 2-octet AS numbers to 4-octet AS numbers. One can upgrade one from 2-octet AS numbers to 4-octet AS numbers. One can upgrade one
Autonomous System or one BGP speaker at a time. Autonomous System or one BGP speaker at a time.
To simplify transition this document assumes that an Autonomous To simplify transition this document assumes that an Autonomous
System could start using a 4-octet AS number only after all the BGP System could start using a 4-octet AS number only after all the BGP
speakers within that Autonomous System have been upgraded to support speakers within that Autonomous System have been upgraded to support
4-octet AS numbers. 4-octet AS numbers.
An OLD BGP speaker SHOULD NOT use AS_TRANS as its Autonomous System An OLD BGP speaker MUST NOT use AS_TRANS as its Autonomous System
number. number.
A non-mappable 4-octet AS number can not be used as a "Member AS A non-mappable 4-octet AS number can not be used as a "Member AS
Number" of a BGP Confederation until all the BGP speakers within the Number" of a BGP Confederation until all the BGP speakers within the
Confederation have transitioned to support 4-octet AS numbers. Confederation have transitioned to support 4-octet AS numbers.
In an environment where an Autonomous System that has OLD BGP In an environment where an Autonomous System that has OLD BGP
speakers peers with two or more Autonomous Systems that have NEW BGP speakers peers with two or more Autonomous Systems that have NEW BGP
speakers and use AS_TRANS (rather than having a globally unique AS speakers and use AS_TRANS (rather than having a globally unique AS
number), use of Multi-Exit Discriminators by the Autonomous System number), use of Multi-Exit Discriminators by the Autonomous System
with the OLD speakers may result in a situation where Multi-Exit with the OLD speakers may result in a situation where Multi-Exit
Discriminator will influence route selection among the routes that Discriminator will influence route selection among the routes that
were received from different neighboring Autonomous Systems. were received from different neighboring Autonomous Systems.
Under certain conditions it may not be possible to reconstruct the Under certain conditions it may not be possible to reconstruct the
entire AS path information from the AS_PATH and the NEW_AS_PATH entire AS path information from the AS_PATH and the AS4_PATH
attributes of a route. This occurs when two or more routes that carry attributes of a route. This occurs when two or more routes that carry
the NEW_AS_PATH attribute are aggregated by an OLD BGP speaker, and the AS4_PATH attribute are aggregated by an OLD BGP speaker, and the
the NEW_AS_PATH attribute of at least one of these routes carries at AS4_PATH attribute of at least one of these routes carries at least
least one 4-octet AS number (as oppose to a 2-octet AS number that is one 4-octet AS number (as oppose to a 2-octet AS number that is
encoded in 4 octets). When such aggregation results in creating a encoded in 4 octets). When such aggregation results in creating a
route that is less specific than any of the component routes, (route route that is less specific than any of the component routes, (route
whose NLRI covers NLRI of all the component routes), loss of the AS whose NLRI covers NLRI of all the component routes), loss of the AS
path information does not create a risk of a routing loop. In all path information does not create a risk of a routing loop. In all
other cases loss of the AS path information does create a risk of a other cases loss of the AS path information does create a risk of a
routing loop. routing loop.
7. IANA Considerations 7. IANA Considerations
This document makes the four-octet, unsigned integers larger than This document expands the pool for AS numbers from 0 - 65535 to 0 -
65535 available for allocation as AS numbers. These AS numbers need 4294967295. The AS numbers are managed by the IANA "Autonomous
to be managed by the IANA "Autonomous System Numbers" registry. System Numbers" registry. Other than expanding the AS number pool,
this document does not propose any modifications to the existing
policies and procedures pertaining to the AS number allocation.
This document uses a BGP Capability code to indicate that a BGP This document uses a BGP Capability code to indicate that a BGP
speaker supports the 4-octet AS numbers. The Capability code has speaker supports the 4-octet AS numbers. The Capability Code 65 has
been assigned by IANA per RFC 2842. been assigned by IANA per RFC 2842.
In addition, this document introduces two new BGP optional transitive In addition, this document introduces two new BGP optional transitive
attributes. The first is the NEW_AS_PATH attribute, which preserves attributes, and their type codes have been assigned by the IANA. The
the AS path information with 4-octet AS numbers across old BGP first one is the AS4_PATH attribute, value 17, which preserves the AS
speakers. The second is the NEW_AGGREGATOR attribute, which is path information with 4-octet AS numbers across old BGP speakers. The
similar in use to the current AGGREGATOR attribute but it carries second one is the AS4_AGGREGATOR attribute, value 18, which is
4-octet AS numbers. The Type Codes for these attributes have been similar in use to the current AGGREGATOR attribute but it carries a
assigned by IANA. 4-octet AS number.
Finally, this document introduces a reserved 2-octet AS number - Finally, this document introduces a reserved 2-octet AS number -
AS_TRANS. The AS number for AS_TRANS has been assigned by the IANA. AS_TRANS. The AS number 23456 has been assigned by the IANA for
AS_TRANS.
8. Security Considerations 8. Security Considerations
This extension to BGP does not change the underlying security issues This extension to BGP does not change the underlying security issues
inherent in the existing BGP. inherent in the existing BGP, except for the following:
The inconsistency between the AS_PATH attribute and the AS4_PATH
attribute can create loss of the AS path information, and potential
routing loops in certain cases as discussed in the document. This
could be exploited by an attacker.
9. Acknowledgments 9. Acknowledgments
The authors would like to thank Yakov Rekhter, Chaitanya Kodeboyina, The authors would like to thank Yakov Rekhter, Chaitanya Kodeboyina,
and Jeffrey Haas for the numerous discussions which went into the and Jeffrey Haas for the numerous discussions which went into the
making of this draft. making of this document.
10. Normative References 10. Normative References
[BGP] Rekhter, Y., Li, T., and Hares, S., "A Border Gateway Protocol [BGP] Rekhter, Y., Li, T., and Hares, S., "A Border Gateway Protocol
4 (BGP-4)", draft-ietf-idr-bgp4-26.txt, October 2004. 4 (BGP-4)", RFC 4271, January 2006.
[RFC1997] Chandra, R., Traina, P. and Li, T., "BGP Communities [RFC1997] Chandra, R., Traina, P. and Li, T., "BGP Communities
Attribute", RFC 1997, August 1996. Attribute", RFC 1997, August 1996.
[RFC2842] Chandra, R., and Scudder, J., "Capabilities Advertisement [RFC2842] Chandra, R., and Scudder, J., "Capabilities Advertisement
with BGP-4", RFC 2842, May 2000. with BGP-4", RFC 2842, May 2000.
[RFC3065] Traina, P., McPherson, D., Scudder, J., "Autonomous System [RFC3065] Traina, P., McPherson, D., Scudder, J., "Autonomous System
Confederations for BGP", RFC 3065, February 2001. Confederations for BGP", RFC 3065, February 2001.
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11. Non-normative References 11. Non-normative References
[AS-EXT-COM] Rekhter, Y., Ramachandra, S., and Tappan, D. "Four- [AS-EXT-COM] Rekhter, Y., Ramachandra, S., and Tappan, D. "Four-
octet AS Specific BGP Extended Community", draft-rekhter-as4octet- octet AS Specific BGP Extended Community", draft-rekhter-as4octet-
ext-community-00.txt, October 2005. ext-community-00.txt, October 2005.
12. Authors' Information 12. Authors' Information
Quaizar Vohra Quaizar Vohra
Juniper Networks Nuova Systems
1194 N. Mathilda Ave 2600 San Tomas Expressway
Sunnyvale, CA 94089 Santa Clara, CA 95051
Email: qv@juniper.net Email: qv@nuovasystems.com
Enke Chen Enke Chen
Cisco Systems, Inc. Cisco Systems, Inc.
170 W. Tasman Dr. 170 W. Tasman Dr.
San Jose, CA 95134 San Jose, CA 95134
Email: enkechen@cisco.com Email: enkechen@cisco.com
13. Intellectual Property Considerations 13. Intellectual Property Considerations
skipping to change at page 10, line 11 skipping to change at page 10, line 31
http://www.ietf.org/ipr. http://www.ietf.org/ipr.
The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any The IETF invites any interested party to bring to its attention any
copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary copyrights, patents or patent applications, or other proprietary
rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement rights that may cover technology that may be required to implement
this standard. Please address the information to the IETF at ietf- this standard. Please address the information to the IETF at ietf-
ipr@ietf.org. ipr@ietf.org.
14. Full Copyright Notice 14. Full Copyright Notice
Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2005). Copyright (C) The IETF Trust (2007).
This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions This document is subject to the rights, licenses and restrictions
contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors contained in BCP 78, and except as set forth therein, the authors
retain all their rights. retain all their rights.
This document and the information contained herein are provided on an This document and the information contained herein are provided on an
"AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS "AS IS" basis and THE CONTRIBUTOR, THE ORGANIZATION HE/SHE REPRESENTS
OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY AND THE INTERNET OR IS SPONSORED BY (IF ANY), THE INTERNET SOCIETY, THE IETF TRUST AND
ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, THE INTERNET ENGINEERING TASK FORCE DISCLAIM ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS
INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF
INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED
WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.
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