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CCAMP Working Group                                              L. Yong
Internet-Draft                                                    Y. Lee
Intended status: Informational                                Huawei USA
Expires: April 21, 2007                                 October 18, 2006


ASON/GMPLS Extension for Reservation and Time Based Automatic Bandwidth
                                Service
             draft-yong-ccamp-ason-gmpls-autobw-service-00

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Copyright Notice

   Copyright (C) The Internet Society (2006).













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Abstract

   The draft presents ASON/GMPLS architecture extension for reservation
   and time based automatic bandwidth services.  It introduces
   additional service intelligence function to the control plane.  It
   describes the service scenarios and procedures for automatic
   bandwidth service.  It also discusses the potential services enabled
   by the service intelligence function.


Table of Contents

   1.  Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  3
     1.1.  Conventions used in this document  . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.2.  Terminology  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
     1.3.  Acronyms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  4
   2.  Motivation for Reservation and Time Based Automatic
       Bandwidth Service  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .  6
   3.  ASON/GMPLS Architecture Extension for Reservation and Time
       Based Automatic Bandwidth Service  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     3.1.  Architecture . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 10
     3.2.  Reservation Service Activation and Deactivation
           Procedures . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11
     3.3.  Time Based Automatic Bandwidth Service . . . . . . . . . . 12
     3.4.  Protocol between Reservation System and Control Plane  . . 14
     3.5.  Time Based Connection Path Management  . . . . . . . . . . 14
   4.  Multi-Layer and Multi-Domain Networks  . . . . . . . . . . . . 17
   5.  Architecture Advantages  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 19
   6.  Other Architecture Solution  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20
   7.  Security Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 21
   8.  IANA Considerations  . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 22
   9.  Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 23
   10. References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
     10.1. Normative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
     10.2. Informative References . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 24
   Authors' Addresses . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25
   Intellectual Property and Copyright Statements . . . . . . . . . . 26














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1.  Introduction

   ASON and GMPLS based architectures have been developed for a long
   time in standard bodies.  One of objectives is to allow user
   instantly request a bandwidth from optical transport networks using
   standard protocols.  We refer to this model as instant bandwidth
   service.  The user could be a customer, a client from a different
   network layer or from a different administration domain.  This model
   is adopted from traditional telephony networks, where the network
   instantly establishes a connection path when a call request comes and
   takes down the connection when the call finishes.  Internet
   technology boosts the network intelligence capability, which drives a
   desire of building the similar intelligence in an optical transport
   network and thus enabling an instant bandwidth service in which
   connection is instantly provided upon the service request from a
   user.

   Although the instant bandwidth service is a prevalent mode in ASON/
   GMPLS control plane architecture, some dedicate bandwidth services
   such as private line are provided based on a reservation.  For
   example, traditional private line services have been offered in the
   way that customer needs to order the service first through an
   administrative system, then carrier set up the circuit and work with
   the customer to verify the connection paths.  Although this service
   model is rather rigid and operation intensive, for a permanent
   connection and a large bandwidth connection, a carrier still prefers
   a way to do reservation and time based bandwidth service.  In
   addition, some customer may want to reserve the service ahead based
   on the future needs and wants the bandwidth to be guaranteed at a
   specific time it desires.  We refer to this capability as reservation
   based automatic bandwidth service through out this document.

   Another consideration is that although customer connection could be
   dynamic, sometimes the traffic presents a certain pattern as time, as
   an alternate solution for the instant bandwidth service, a connection
   could be managed as a function of time.  We refer to this capability
   as time based automatic bandwidth service through out this document.

   This document introduces ASON/GMPLS architecture extension to support
   reservation and time based automatic bandwidth service.  It presents
   the application scenarios and service procedures.  It also describes
   potential new components in a control plane to support the services.
   In addition, the comparison between instant bandwidth service and
   reservation based bandwidth service is discussed.







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1.1.  Conventions used in this document

   The key words "MUST", "MUST NOT", "REQUIRED", "SHALL", "SHALL NOT",
   "SHOULD", "SHOULD NOT", "RECOMMENDED", "MAY", and "OPTIONAL" in this
   document are to be interpreted as described in BCP 14 [RFC2119].

1.2.  Terminology

   Client Layer: In multi-layer networks, client layer is the layer that
   could request a service from the server layer.  For example, IP
   client layer request a bandwidth from OTN server layer.

   Connection Manager: A entity that establish and remove a connection
   and maintain all existing connections.

   Event Register: A entity that hold all the time related events and
   announce an event when its specified time arrives.

   Policy Manager: A entity that manage all the policy profiles.

   Policy Profile: A entity that gather all the policy rules associated
   with a connection or a set of connections.

   Policy Rules: A rule associated with a connection.  It may relate to
   an event or time.

   Reservation based automatic bandwidth service: The connection request
   could be booked in carrier reservation system ahead of service time.
   When the service time arrives, the network could automatically build
   up the connection.

   Reservation System: A system can book a connection reservation from a
   customer.

   Server Layer: In multi-layer networks, server layer is the layer that
   could provide a service to its client layer.

   Time based automatic bandwidth service: The connection path or
   bandwidth could be managed as a function of time.

1.3.  Acronyms

   AIS Alarm Indication Signal

   ASON Automatically Switched Optical Network

   DOM Day Of a Month




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   ENNI External Network to Network Interface.

   GMPLS Generalized Multi-protocol Label Switching

   HOY Holiday Of a Year

   NE Network Element

   NMS Network Management System

   OTN Optical Transport Network

   SDH Synchronous Digital Hierarchy

   SONET Synchronous Optical Network

   TDM Time Division Multiplexing

   TOD Time of a Day

   UNEQ-P Unequipped Path

   UNI User Network Interface




























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2.  Motivation for Reservation and Time Based Automatic Bandwidth
    Service

   IP network success motivates people to develop network intelligence
   in an optical transport network.  One objective is to enable
   automatic connection route selection, connection path establishment
   and removal, and connection management in an optical network and
   automatic interworking with other layer network such as IP network.
   Another objective is to allow user to instantly request a network
   bandwidth when it needs.  The control plane based network
   architecture is defined by both IETF [RFC3945] and ITU-T [ITU-T
   G.8080].  Numerous protocols have been developed by IETF since then.

   Current instant based bandwidth service model supported in ASON/GMPLS
   architecture is shown in Figure 1.  The network contains a control
   plane and a data plane.  A user or client equipment connects to a
   network element (node) via physical interface.  This interface is
   called User Network Interface(UNI) [RFC4208] [ITU-T G.8080].  There
   is a signaling channel between a user and the network.  When a user
   needs a bandwidth from one point to another, it can send a connection
   request to the control plane via the signaling channel.  The request
   will specify the pre-defined network source and destination node
   addresses, port IDs, bandwidth, and other service parameters.  The
   control plane will process the request, select connection route(s) in
   the network and build the connection path(s) in the data plane
   according the service request.  After the user receives the
   confirmation message about the connection completion, user could
   start data transmission over the data plane.  The data stream is then
   transmitted along the reserved path toward the destination.  Figure 2
   show the signaling flows for the connection establishment and data
   transmission.[RFC4208] [RFC3473].  When a user completes the
   bandwidth usage, it sends a disconnect request to the network, the
   network takes down the connection path and releases the bandwidth for
   reuse.


                                                       Signaling Channel
                                                        |
                                                        |
               __      |-----------------------------|  V   __
              |  |-----|       Control Plane         |-----|  |
              |  | UNI |-----------------------------| UNI |  |
              |__|=====|        Data Plane           |=====|__|
              User     |-----------------------------|  A  User
                       |                             |  |
                       |<---      Network        --->|  |
                                                        |
                                                    Physical Interface



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                     Figure 1: ASON/GMPLS Architecture



                                Network

                 User    Control       Data        User
                         Plane         Plane
                   |      |               |         |
              Path +----->|------------------------>|
                   |      |                        /|
             Resv  |<-----|<----------------------/ |
                   |\     |                         |
          ResvConf | \--->|------------------------>|
                   |                      |         |
            Data   |<====================>|<=======>|
       Transmission|                      |         |


   Figure 2: Signaling Flow For Path Establishment and Data Transmission

   There are some differences between ASON and GMPLS architecture models
   regarding the UNI interface.  ASON uses carrier oriented domain
   architecture model.  UNI is used between user and a network domain;
   ENNI is used between two network domains.  The ASON control plane
   supports service establishment through the automatic provisioning of
   end-to-end connection across one or more domains.  In contrast, GMPLS
   has peer model and overlay model.  In the peer model, it assumes a
   community of users with mutual trust and shared goals.  There are no
   inherent policy or security boundaries, and routing and signaling
   protocols flow within the network without filtering or other
   constraints imposed.  In the overlay model [RFC4208], it assumes that
   the network nodes act as a closed system, and that user nodes are not
   aware of the topology of the network, though network and user nodes
   may have a routing protocol interaction for the exchange of
   reachability information to other user nodes.

   Regardless of the architecture differences in ASON and GMPLS, both
   models share the same service characteristics in which the service is
   requested at the time the connection needs.  In other words, service
   request and service time are tightly coupled.  This service model may
   raise concerns for carriers to offer all the bandwidth services in
   optical transport networks in this manner.  Here are the major
   concerns:

   1) It is hard for carriers to predict user demand and guarantee the
   dedicated bandwidth when user needs it.  Some user may want to book
   the bandwidth ahead to ensure the bandwidth availability.



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   2) For some Permanent Connection (PC) or a high bandwidth connection,
   carriers may want to let a customer book in advance and automatically
   provision the connection when service time arrives.  This way gives
   carriers a chance to plan the network resource ahead of service time
   if necessary.

   3) Having user directly request the bandwidth from network through
   the signaling channel that directly communicates with the optical
   control plane could potentially introduce a big security concerns for
   carrier.  Since the control plane is the network brain, it can not
   tolerate any possibility of outsider attack.  Thus, the special
   security function for the signaling channel at UNI is required.

   4) A carrier may not want to expose its network to its customer.  To
   support UNI, carrier has to define a separated node address, port ID
   for customer to use, and the advertisement of customer reachability
   in the control plane, which adds the complexity and cost for a
   carrier.

   5) Some optical data plane takes time to have a path run clean even
   the connection path already established from optical control plane.
   Therefore, user may get a lot of corrupted payloads initially.

   6) The service model presents a big challenge for service operation
   and back office system integration.

   Today this instant bandwidth service model has been rarely deployed
   in a real network although the protocols have been standardized in
   the standard body for a while.  It is believed due to two major
   reasons: 1) most of bandwidth services offered by optical networks
   are relatively static and could be reserved ahead of service time; 2)
   the service model and its benefits are still under carrier
   investigation because of these concerns.

   The questions are raised: could ASON/GMPLS architecture support
   reservation based automatic bandwidth service? could ASON/GMPLS
   architectures support time based automatic bandwidth service as an
   alternate solution for bandwidth on demand service.  Furthermore, how
   could we enhance the control plane to be of service intelligence?

   These questions motivate this draft to discuss the possibility of
   ASON/GMPLS architecture extension to support reservation and time
   based automatic bandwidth services.

   * The reservation based automatic bandwidth service is that the
   connection service could be booked in carrier reservation system
   ahead of service time.  When the service time arrives, the network
   could automatically build up the connection path.



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   * The time based automatic connection is that an existing connection
   or bandwidth can be managed as a function of time.

















































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3.  ASON/GMPLS Architecture Extension for Reservation and Time Based
    Automatic Bandwidth Service

3.1.  Architecture

   The great advantage of ASON/GMPLS is to have network intelligence for
   network discovery, route selection, path establishment, connection
   management.  The question is how to utilize the intelligence for a
   reservation based bandwidth request.  Figure 3 illustrates a possible
   architecture model for a reservation based automatic bandwidth
   service.  In this model, it is assumed that user equipment has been
   connected to network with a physical interface such as SONET or
   Ethernet; there is no signaling channel between user and network.
   The control plane enabled network is able to automatically select a
   route and set up the connection path.  A reservation system is
   provided by a carrier.

                               +------------+       +---------+
                        ------>|Reservation |<----->|   OSS   |
           Service Request     |  System    |       +---------+
                               +-----+------+
                                     |
                                     |
               __      |-------------V---------------|      __
              |  |     |       Control Plane         |     |  |
              |  |     |-----------------------------|     |  |
              |__|=====|        Data Plane           |=====|__|
              User     |-----------------------------|  A  User
                       |                             |  |
                       |<----      Network      ---->|  |
                                                        |
                                                    Physical Interface


                Figure 3: ASON/GMPLS Architecture Extension

   The service Reservation System (RS) allows user to book the service
   request ahead of service time.  User could specify the service start
   time and end time if available, source and destination, bandwidth,
   and other service parameters.  The RS needs go through the service
   validation processes including customer account, connection points,
   service quality, etc.  To accomplish these steps, the RS needs to
   communicate with some back office systems (OSS) such as account,
   inventory system.  After completing the validation processes, the RS
   converts the request to a connection order in a database, and send a
   confirmation message back to the customer.

   For bandwidth reservation, a provider could use booking information



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   in the database to prepare network resource ahead.  Since some
   services may use the bandwidth over the same network segment in
   different time period, they could use the same bandwidth resource at
   different time.  In TDM network, the bandwidth refers to "timeslot".
   Thus, the resource planning is to estimate a bandwidth pool in
   network to ensure that all booked services can get the bandwidth at
   its service time.  If a "special" service really requests to book and
   allocate network resource ahead service time, it should be allowed
   under some condition such as the ahead period prior to the service
   time and/or price.

3.2.  Reservation Service Activation and Deactivation Procedures

   When the service time arrives, the RS generates a connection request
   to the network source node of the connection, the source node will
   select route(s) first and then establish the connection path toward
   destination node using GMPLS signaling protocol.  The signaling flow
   for the connection establishment shows in Figure 4.  The RS may
   provide the explicit route list depending on the implementation, then
   the network only needs to establish the connection path.

   Although the network already allocates bandwidth for the connection,
   user may not generate traffic yet; unequipped path(UNEQ-P)or alarm
   indication signal(AIS-P)could be generated by SONET/SDH or OTN data
   plane.  Thus, the control plane needs to inform the nodes that the
   path is in waiting payload period and starts a waiting period timer;
   the nodes should not start the path monitor at this time.
   Administrative Status Information object in GMPLS signaling may be
   used in cooperation on this step.  For an advanced situation, the
   network could enable an automatic data path verification process
   before getting into the waiting period.

                                   Network

                 User    Reservation Control    Data      User
                         System      Plane      Plane
                   |      |            |          |         |
          Service  +----->|            |          |         |
          booking  |      |            |          |         |
      Confirmation |<-----|            |          |         |
                   ~      ~            ~          ~         ~
          Request  |      |----------->|          |         |
                   |      |            |          |         |
      Confirmation |      |<-----------|          |         |
                   |                              |         |
            Data   |<============================>|<=======>|
       Transmission|                              |         |




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            Figure 4: Reservation based RSVP-TE Signaling Flow

   When user begins to generate the traffic, both ingress and egress
   nodes could detect the payload and inform the control plane.  The
   control plane at the source node will stop the timer, inform the node
   to start monitor the path.  The administrative status information
   object may be used to inform the connection status.

   If the waiting timer is expired, the control plane may take down the
   connection path and inform the RS about service cancellation.  The
   waiting time can be selected by user or a default timer provided by
   carrier.

   To tear down the connection, there could be two scenarios.  First, a
   customer does not specify the end time of its connection, it simply
   asks network to take down the connection when it stops sending
   traffic.  Second, a customer specifies the ending time in the service
   scheduler system.

   In the first scenario, customer stops sending data stream when it
   finishes, the nodes at ingress and/or egress detect the payload
   missing, the ingress node informs the control plane.  The control
   plane waits for certain period (configurable or defined in service
   profile), then the source node initiates the teardown message toward
   the destination node.  It will send a service completion message to
   the reservation system.  The system will go through the service
   completion process.  It is necessary that the nodes at ingress and
   egress differentiate a link or equipment failure from payload missing
   and inform the control plane with different status changes.

   In the second scenario, the RS sends a disconnection request to the
   control plane when the service period expires.  The control plane
   informs the source and destination nodes to inject UNEQ-P signaling
   toward user if the interface is SONET or OTN.  Then, the source node
   sends a path teardown message toward the destination node and send a
   service completion message to the RS.  The RS will go through the
   service completion process.

   The solution suggested here provides an alternate way to
   automatically establish a connection path in ASON/GMPLS network.
   Once the connection is established, the control plane can manage the
   connection based on the service request such as service protection
   requirement.

3.3.  Time Based Automatic Bandwidth Service

   The reservation based automatic bandwidth service solution allows
   carrier further implementing event driven service such as a time



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   based bandwidth service.  A time based service means that the
   connection path could be automatically setup, taken down, or modified
   based on the pre-scheduled time.  For example, a connection will be
   setup two hours every day for three months or 600Mbps during the day
   and 150Mbps at night.  In this case, the reservation system allows
   customer to specify time based connection request.

   For this advanced application, the RS could convert the reservation
   into a connection request associated with a policy profile.  When an
   initial connection time arrives, it will send a connection request
   with the policy profile to the control plane.  The control plane will
   maintain the policy profile and execute the policy rules specified in
   the policy profile.  Figure 5 shows some policy rules but not limited
   to.  How the control plane supports the time based connection request
   will be discussed in the section 3.5.


             +--------------------------------------------------------+
             |   Rule Type  |   Time Duration   |     Action          |
             |--------------+-------------------+---------------------|
             |    TOD       |      8AM-5PM      | Maintain Connection |
             | Time of Day  |-------------------+---------------------|
             |              |       Other       | Terminate Connection|
             |--------------+-------------------+---------------------|
             |    DOW       |      M - F        | Maintain 600MBW     |
             |  Day of Week |-------------------+---------------------|
             |              |      Sa-Su        | Maintain 200MBW     |
             +--------------+-------------------+---------------------+



                          Figure 5: Policy Rules

   Followings are some potential service features that could be
   implemented through the reservation based bandwidth service but not
   limited to.

   1) Bandwidth service is specified in time pattern, for example, time
   of day, day of month, holiday of year, etc.  If the connection is
   taken down during the break time, it is possible that the new
   connection path differs from the old but the service quality remains
   the same.  The carrier needs to plan the network resource ahead to
   ensure the bandwidth availability.

   2) Bandwidth modification for an existing connection.  Customer
   specifies bandwidth variance to the time for a connection.  In this
   case, the control plane can modify the connection bandwidth without
   service disruption.



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   3) One reservation for a group of connections among a set of client
   ports.  The set of client ports could share a same profile.  Time
   based traffic pattern can be specified among the ports.  For example,
   there are 10 ports, the first four ports need 200 Mbps and last six
   ports need 100 Mbps in day time; two ports need 500Mbps, the rest
   needs 50 Mbps at night.

   4) Service extension for an existing connection.  Customer could
   extend the service time through the reservation system.

   5) Combined above services.  The combined service offers a lot of
   flexibility for the bandwidth service.  Thus, it may serve as a
   bandwidth on demand service.

3.4.  Protocol between Reservation System and Control Plane

   There are some protocols needed between the reservation system and
   the control plane.  It is recommended to use existing signaling
   protocol, i.e. extend GMPLS signaling protocol to the RS.  In this
   case, the RS acts as GMPLS signaling agent.  The RS can send a
   connection request to the source node using GMPLS protocol.  Since
   the RS and network belong to the same carrier administrative domain,
   RS can directly use network internal address and port information in
   the connection request.  Thus, it is like a user interface in GMPLS
   peer model.  For the time based service, there will be additional
   enhanced objects in GMPLS protocol to carry the time based service
   information.  Another way to implement is to develop Management
   Information Base (MIB) modules between RS and control plane to carry
   the connection request information.  This implementation requires
   control plane to convert MIB into signaling message for an end-to-end
   path establishment.

3.5.  Time Based Connection Path Management

   A control plane is expected to manage a connection in an event driven
   policy.  For example, when a failure happens [POLICY], it can select
   another route for user or allocate the reserved protection path in
   shared mesh configuration.  To support time based connection
   management, the control plane needs to have a time trigger and event
   register function.

   Figure 6 shows a possible connection controller structure to manage a
   scheduled event.  There are three components plus a time ticker.  The
   connection manager(CM) is responsible for connection establishment
   and maintenance.  The policy manager(PM) manages all the connection
   rules.  These rules may be associated with an network event and/or
   time event.  The Event Register(ER) can table all time related events
   that will be triggered when the time arrives.  When a connection



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   request comes from RS, CM in the source node processes the request
   and establishes the initial connection by using GMPLS protocol.  If
   there is a time based policy profile associated with the connection,

   CM sends the connection ID and policy profile to PM.  PM processes
   the policy profile and registers the time based events into the ER.
   When an event is on time, EM notifies PM on the event.  PM sends the
   action with connection ID to CM.  Then CM executes the action on the
   connection.  Such time based function empowers a control plane to
   actively manage the connection path.  It is possible that a time
   based connection may be routed through difference paths during
   different connection time but the service quality remains the same.
   How to keep a time based connection in the same route needs future
   study.



                             Connection Controller
          Connection  +----------------------------------+
           Request    |                                  |
           from RS    | +------------+    +------------+ |
          ------------+>| Connection +----> Policy     | |
                      | | Manager    <----+ Manager    | |
                      | +------------+    +--A----+----+ |
                      |                      |    |      |
                      | +-----------+  +-----+----V----+ |
                      | |Time Ticker|->| Event Register| |
                      | +-----------+  +---------------+ |
                      + ---------------------------------+


                 Figure 6: Connection Controller Structure

   There is a debate whether the time based connection management should
   reside in the control plane or management plane, i.e.  Network
   Management System (NMS).  NMS is a centralized system.  It responses
   to collect fault alarms and performance data from network, provide
   equipment configuration and service provisioning, and support all the
   operation activities.  It is possible to implement time based
   connection management function in NMS.  In this case, NMS keeps
   tracking all connections created by the control plane and maintain
   the time based policy profiles.  When an event arrives, NMS finds out
   the associated connection ID and its source node, then sends the
   event to the control plane.  The control plane executes the event.
   In the model, both control plane and NMS manage the connections.  Who
   has the connection ownership is questionable.  The model may create a
   lot of communications between the NMS and control plane for a large
   network or frequent connection changes, which could cause a
   scalability problem and infrastructure challenge.  In contrast, using



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   control plane to manage time based connection provides the
   distributing management in the control plane and the control plane
   fully manages and maintains the connections, which presents some
   advantages.















































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4.  Multi-Layer and Multi-Domain Networks

   ASON architecture supports a multi-layer and multi-domain
   configuration.  [MLN/MRN] The solution described here work for multi-
   layer networks as well.  Figure 7 illustrates a multi-layer network
   in general.  Customer equipment physically connect to an ASON network
   at client layer, for example, through Ethernet interface, the network
   ingress and egress have client layer interfaces; the network side
   interfaces have server layer interfaces.  The customer could book a
   connection request from client layer without knowing the network
   topology and architecture at all.  When the service time arrives, the
   scheduler system will send the connection request to the control
   plane, the control plane will select the path route over client layer
   adaptation and server layer to establish the connection path.  If the
   server layer path is already existed, the control plane could also
   build a connection path over the existing tunnel in server layer
   depending on the service request or control plane policy.

   In the similar way, when tearing down a connection, if there are
   multiple connections in client layer such as multiple VLANs, client
   layer will only tear down the VLAN path in the client layer.  When
   tearing down the last VLAN path in a tunnel, the control plane could
   take down the tunnel as well depending on the service request or
   control plane policy.

   The reservation based service model allows provider to manage the
   server layer connection separately from the client layer connection.
   Based on the customer needs, the reservation system could let server
   layer to establish a tunnel that connects to ingress and egress at
   client layer first.  For example, set up a SONET connection and use
   GFP at ingress and egress to map to Ethernet port.  Thus, when
   cusomter wants a P2P connection at Ethernet, the connection can be
   built directly over end-to-end client layer through the server layer
   tunnel.  Multiple P2P connections may be built over a tunnel.  As a
   result, client layer connections could be very dynamic while a server
   layer connection is relative static.















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                               +------------+     +------+
                      -------->| Reservation|<--->| OSS  |
            Service Request    |  System    |     +------+
                               +------------+
                                     |
                                     |
                   User   +--+       |       +--+  User
   Data Stream ----> =====|  |       |       |  |======  Client Layer
            ..............|..|.......|.......|..|....................
                          |  +-------V-------+  |        Server Layer
                          |                     |
                          +---------------------+
                                 Network



                       Figure 7: Multi-Layer Network

   The solution could apply to multi-domain configuration as well.  In
   this scenario, there could be one reservation system to support
   multi-domains or each domain has its own reservation system.  If
   customer needs to build a connection across multi-domains, it can
   book through one system or several systems.  A reservation system
   will use the same semantics to build connection path through the
   control plane.  External Network to Network Interface (ENNI) will be
   used between domains.


























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5.  Architecture Advantages

   The architecture model for reservation and time based automatic
   bandwidth services adopt ASON/GMPLS architecture model and combine
   with Web application technology.  It de-couples service request time
   and service time, which provides a great value for carriers and
   customers.  It provides a practical architecture to a bandwidth on
   demand service in an optical transport network.  It has following
   advantages compared to UNI based instant bandwidth service.

   1.Reservation based automatic bandwidth service can provide better
   bandwidth guarantee for the customer.  Carrier can observe
   reservations and plan the network resources.

   2.It does not need a signaling channel between user and network, i.e.
   no UNI interface.  This simplifies the service model.  To support
   UNI, carrier has to work out separated node address and port ID for
   customer to use, and the advertisement of customer reachability in
   the network.

   3.Since there is no signaling channel between user and network
   control plane, it eliminates the possibility that a control plane is
   attacked from UNI signaling channel.

   4.This allows network to pre-verify the data plane path by using an
   embedded tool or automatically tune a data plane path to ensure the
   path running clean.

   5.This service model is more close to the private line services that
   carrier offer today.  It could co-exist with existing ASON/GMPLS
   architecture.

   6.Advanced reservation system could be designed to offer very
   flexible and dynamic service for customers as mentioned above.

   7.The architecture model allows carrier easier to implement the
   services in term of service operation and back office system support.

   Internet technology enables many WEB based reservation applications.
   Integrating ASON/GMPLS architecture with the reservation based system
   boosts optical control plane capability to support automatic
   bandwidth service and open potentials for other advanced services
   such as L1VPN and bandwidth trading.








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6.  Other Architecture Solution

   The architecture solution discussed in this document is one way to
   implement the reservation and time based automatic bandwidth service.
   The separation between the reservation system and control plane
   provides a realistic way for the implementation from many
   perspectives.  The reservation system can be interwork with other
   back office systems to provide customer account management, inventory
   verification, resource management, and security management.  The
   control plane only responses for the connection management.

   Another solution is to directly implement reservation and time based
   automatic bandwidth service through UNI interface, i.e. enhance the
   GMPLS signaling protocol between user and network interface to allow
   carrying these time based service information and let control plane
   interwork with back office system to perform all the validation
   processes and manage the services.  Authors think this architecture
   design is not a practical design for carrier and it will add more
   concerns about the service models over UNI beyond mentioned in this
   document.































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7.  Security Considerations

   This implementation eliminates the security concern at UNI and
   requires security management in the scheduler system.  Each user
   needs to have a private account and security procedure before it can
   summit its service request.  The architecture presents little
   possibility to attack the network.












































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8.  IANA Considerations

   There is no IANA actions requested in this specification.
















































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9.  Acknowledgements

   Authors would like to thank James Zhu and Dan Li from Huawei, Adrian
   Farrel from olddog, Tomonori TAKEDA and Kensuke SHINDOME from NTT,
   and D'Allessandro Alessandro from Telecom Italia for the review and
   great suggestions.













































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10.  References

10.1.  Normative References

   [ITU-T G.8080]
              ITU-T, "Architecture for the Automatically Switched
              Optical Network(ASON).", January 2003.

   [RFC2119]  Bradner, S., "Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate
              Requirement  Levels", RFC 2119, March 1997.

   [RFC3471]  Berger (Editor)et al.,, L., "Generalized MPLS signaling
              Functional Description", RFC 3471, January 2003.

   [RFC3473]  Berger, L., "Generalized MPLS Signaling - RSVP-TE
              Extensions", RFC 3473, January 2003.

   [RFC3945]  Mannie, Ed.,, E., "Gemeralized Multi-Protocol Lable
              Switching (GMPLS) Achitecture", RFC 3945, October 2004.

   [RFC3946]  Mannie, E. and D. Papadimitriou, "Generalized Multi-
              Protocol Label Switch (GMPLS) Extension for  Synchronoous
              Optical Network (SONET) and Sychronous Digital Hierarchy
              (SDH) Control", RFC 3946, December 2005.

   [RFC4208]  Swallow, G., Drake, J., Ishimatsu, H., and Y. Rekhter,
              "Generalized Multiprotocl Label Switching (GMPLS) User-
              Network Interface (UNI): Resource Rervation Protocol-
              Traffic  Engineering (RSVP-TE) Support for hte pverlay
              model", RFC 4208, October 2005.

10.2.  Informative References

   [MLN/MRN]  Shiomoto, et al., K., "Requirement for GMPLS-based multi-
              region and multi-kayer networks", January 2003.

   [POLICY]   Lee , Y. and Z. James , "Framework for the Polocy-Based
              Mechanism in GMPLS Network", May 2006.













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Authors' Addresses

   Lucy Yong
   Huawei USA
   1700 Alma Dr. Suite 100
   Plano, TX  75075

   Phone: +1 469-229-5387
   Email: lucyyong@huawei.com


   Young Lee
   Huawei USA
   1700 Alma Dr. Suite 100
   Plano, TX  75075

   Phone: +1 469-229-2240
   Email: ylee@huawei.com

































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Full Copyright Statement

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